The transformer is a device which either steps up the AC or measures down the AC voltage.
First, connect the ac source to the transformer input. Based on this, there are mostly two types of transformers available in the marketplace step up and step down.
Additionally, there are many types available like center tapped transformer, multiple output transformer, etc.. Bear in mind the output is always AC only.
Connect the output of this transformer into the rectifier input. The rectifier is a device that converts AC voltage to unidirectional AC voltage.
How is AC converted to DC?
I am not going to spell out the unidirectional AC voltage as it ought to spell out the whole AC theory, so keep in mind that it is unfiltered DC voltage and it is having ripples.
Based on various parameters (transformer type, link ); basically, we’ll use two types of rectifiers, we use full-wave rectifier and bridge rectifier. Its nothing but a place of diodes together connected .
No worries about the best way to join this. You will find ready-made PCB’s, bridge rectifier IC and small IC’s available and choose depending on your requirement.
One crucial issue is that the rectifier which you pick must handle the output (load).
Finally, connect the output of rectifier to the filter. Keep in mind the capacitor you’re employing within this circuit must be using its voltage higher than or equal to the dc output voltage (that has to be same of transformer output voltage ) so you’ll find a pure dc output without any ripples.
I suggest having a high voltage capacitor (such as 150% of output voltage).
When you measure the output voltage from this capacitor, you’ll see an increase in output voltage even though your transformer is providing less ac voltage.
Do not panic as it is due to the voltage rating of the capacitor, and it is merely the open-circuit voltage.
Once you connect a loaf (such as fan, headed, etc.), you’ll notice the voltage drops down and becomes equivalent to transformer voltage.
Another point I some capacitors are polarized while some not so you want to correct link the capacitor precisely the same polarity with rectifier output’s polarity (DC distribution has polarity negative and positive, otherwise told as voltage and ground).
If you join wrongly, you will not just become pure DC output signal also the capacitor will bulge and occasionally it blasts .
Lastly, if you want output dc voltage lower than the transformer output voltage, you want to, join a voltage regulator next to it and include a few, of capacitors.
There are numerous DIY circuits and video tutorials available on the internet. First, consult with those and get the components, connect it and get your AC to DC adapter.